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effects of minamata disease

Minamata disease, sometimes referred to as Chisso-Minamata disease, is a neurological disease caused by severe mercury poisoning. Minamata disease was first discovered in Minamata City in Kumam… Once the neurologic sequelae of Minamata disease are evident, the damage is irreversible, and severe intoxications have been fatal. Minamata disease; fetal-type Minamata disease; methylmercury; placental transfer. Minamata is an industrial city on the Yatsushiro coast of Japan on the southernmost island (Kyushu). Then, the local population of people that depended on fish were affected, particularly developing fetuses and children. Alternative Ways to Treat Fatty Liver Disease, Latest Cures for Anxiety and Panic Disorders, Bacterial Vaginosis Alternative Treatments, Most Effective Erectile Dysfunction Treatment. The neuropathology of Minamata disease has been well studied; this review focuses on human cases of Minamata disease in Kumamoto Prefecture. Minamata disease is one of the most significant negative consequences associated with environmental pollution caused by industrial activity in the world. In addition, fetuses are exposed to methylmercury via the placenta from maternal fish consumption, and high-level exposure to methylmercury causes damage to the brains of infants. In extreme cases, insanity, paralysis, coma, and death follow within weeks of the onset of symptoms. They referred to cats afflicted with the disease as “the suicide-prone group of dancing cats” due to their tendency to ‘dance’ around, and then jump into the nearby bay (Ui, 1992). At Kumamoto University, research suggested that the disease was a type of heavy metal poisoning transmitted by fish and shellfish. Minamata disease Last Updated on Sat, 05 Dec 2020 | Toxic Effects Minamata is an industrial city on the Yatsushiro coast of Japan on the southernmost island (Kyushu). Through gills and gastrointestinal tracts, fishery products such as fish, shrimp, crabs, and shellfish, take in methylmercury discharged from chemical plants into rivers and seas. These would be eaten by larger, predatory fish and so the methyl mercury passed up the food plastics plastics. Fish consumption, methylmercury and child neurodevelopment. In extreme cases, insanity, paralysis, coma and death follow within weeks of the onset of symptoms. The disease is characterized by peripheral sensory loss, tremors, dysarthria, ataxia, and both hearing and visual loss. Epub 2015 Aug 12. After a number of cases were seen, investigations started. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. The fishermen were catching fish and seafood in the waters of Minamata Bay, waters which proved to be heavily contaminated with methyl mercury. Photos of small patients born with central paralysis are horrifying. It was stated that Minamata disease is the illness of the central nervous system caused by a methyl-mercury compound released into the aquatic environment as a by-product of acetaldehyde acetic acid. Minamata disease played an important role in environmental awareness — namely the effects of pollution — and element toxicology. And, like the cats, some people seemed to be going crazy, shouting uncontrollably. The result was bioaccumulation and bioconcentration of the methyl mercury. The Minamata disaster has certainly been the most outstanding example recorded of the effects of industrial irresponsibility and will remain as a never to be forgotten lesson. The processes used inorganic mercury (mercuric oxide) as a catalyst. Minamata disease (methylmercury poisoning) was first discovered in 1956 around Minamata Bay, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. I have been working in Minamata as a medical doctor for about 30 years. At the same time. Minamata Disease, the existence of which was officially acknowledged by the government in 1956, is a ... and the level of spread and severity in harming the natural environment, leaving behind adverse effects across the local communities that lasted for a protracted period of time. 168-71) and acetaldehyde for many years. Minamata disease is caused through the absorption of methyl mercury into the body through various environmental sources, primarily through seafood. Curr Opin Pediatr. Local people who consumed seafood from Minamata Bay became very sick, … [Mercury as a Global Pollutant and Mercury Exposure Assessment and Health Effects]. Minamata disease is an encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy caused by daily intake of fish and shellfish highly contaminated by methylmercury. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Others developed shaking ( tremors) in their arms and legs, difficulty walking, and even brain damage. The effluent from the factory contained inorganic mercury and perhaps also some organic mercury (methyl mercury), produced as a by-product in the chemical reaction in the plant. The people of Minamata reported numbness in their limbs and lips. Some had difficulty hearing or seeing. Iwata T, Takaoka S, Sakamoto M, Maeda E, Nakamura M, Liu XJ, Murata K. J Toxicol Sci. Their pet cats, which were also eating the fish, suffered similar symptoms. The Nippon Chisso Company: Beginnings II. In that respect, this review of the outbreak and of the neuropathology of the process, of which much though not by any means all was published in the Japanese literature of the period, is well justified. The effects of Minamata disease have primarily affected women and children. In pregnant women who were taking fish, children with congenital Minamata disease were born. While people living outside of the Minamata area had an average level of 4ppm, people living in Mina… Minamata disease has many effects on both the human and the environment. This environmental disaster led to over seventy deaths and some 2,265 cases of poisoning, yet it was many years before the company accepted liability and compensated the victims.3 The victims suffered neurological effects such as memory loss, emotional instability, and loss of muscle co-ordination. Crossref, Google Scholar; Vogt RR, Nieuwland JA. In i960 methyl mercury was detected in seafood and in 1961 it was detected in sediments derived from the factory. The Minamata Disease as an Example of Government Weakness The effects of Minamata disease, which originated in Minamata, Japan, first came to the attention of local fishermen. A second epidemic in Japan occurred in 1965 along the Agano River, Niigata Prefecture. I. Minamata disease caused not only serious casualties to lives and health of the patients but also serious damage, which are unable to be easily relieved, to natural environments, human relations, and economical activities in the districts, as well as the daily lives of the patients and family members.  |  2009 Dec 20;408(2):272-6. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.011. Exhausted by the outbreak of Minamata disease, the effect of the accelerated urban drift associated with high economic growth, and the subsequent decline of the regional economy, by September 2007, the population had also declined to 28,901 persons. Recovering from the defeat of the Second World War IV. Yorifuji T, Kashima S, Tsuda T, Harada M. Sci Total Environ. The effluent, containing inorganic mercury and discharged into the bay from the factory, was not dispersed in the water, but formed sediment at the bottom where micro-organisms converted the mercury into the more toxic methyl-mercury. Methylmercury, the causative agent of Minamata disease, can easily penetrate the brain, and adult-type Minamata disease patients showed neurological symptoms according to the brain regions where the neurons, mainly in the cerebrum and cerebellum, were damaged. Symptoms include ataxia, numbness in the hands and feet, general muscle weakness, narrowing of the field of vision and damage to hearing and speech. The Japanese diet contains a lot of fish, and the local fishermen and their families would eat more fish than most. He T, Shen H, Zhu J, Zhu Y, He Y, Li Z, Lu H. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Aug;20(2):1499-1508. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2019.10396. In 1956 the first case of what became known as Minamata disease was reported and then other people started to present themselves to doctors and at hospitals with various symptoms such as muscular incoordination and difficulties in speech. 1921. How mercury from a Japanese factory contaminated fish in Minamata Bay. Consequently it was readily absorbed by plankton and other organisms in the sea which were the food for shellfish and small fish. Minamata Disease source What is Minamata Disease? Methylmercury, the causative agent of Minamata disease, can easily penetrate the brain, and adult-type Minamata disease patients showed neurological symptoms according to the brain regions where the neurons, mainly in the cerebrum and cerebellum, were damaged. A congenital … The level of mercury in the body is tested with hair samples and it is widely agreed that when these levels are higher than 50ppm (parts per million), there is likely to be nerve damage. Minamata disease has had devastating effects on the region, and as of 2001, there were still 3000 people living with the disease; no new cases of Minamata disease have been reported. Minamata disease was first discovered in Minamata City in Kumamoto prefecture, Japanin 1956. Signs and symptoms include ataxia, numbness in the hands and feet, general muscle weakness, loss of peripheral vision, and damage to hearing and speech. These epidemics appeared during an era in which productivity took the highest priority and little consideration was given to the environment. Lethality Symptoms of Minamata disease were first discovered in April 1956 when children started to exhibit symptoms for an unknown disease. USA.gov. Minamata disease: A disorder caused by methyl mercury poisoning that was first described in the inhabitants of Minamata Bay, Japan and resulted from their eating fish contaminated with mercury industrial waste. Minamata disease is transmitted by the consumption of large numbers of shellfish and fish living in the Minamata Bay and its environs which was contaminated by mercury compound. Characteristics of hand tremor and postural sway in patients with fetal-type Minamata disease. Counteraction and unconcern VII. Geniposide attenuates cadmium‑induced oxidative stress injury via Nrf2 signaling in osteoblasts. 2008 Apr;20(2):178-83. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e3282f5614c. Chapter - 4 Minamata disease. In this review, we first summarize 1) the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure in Minamata disease. A congenital form of the disease can also affect fetuses. This effluent was discharged into the waters of Minamata Bay. The discovery of Minamata disease and the difficulty in determining its cause V. Social trauma and the fishermen's riot VI. Minamata is a small industrial town situated near the southwest coast of Kyushu, the most southerly of the three main islands of Japan. The beginnings of the carbide organic chemical complex III. In Minamata City, major industrial activities except agriculture have been depressed since the official discovery of Minamata Disease, The growth in the fish catch, commercial sales, and industrial production has become poor compared with those of the entire prefecture. Although their title states “research implications,” the authors failed to convey some important caveats from the incident. as follows: 2) a retrospective study on temporal and regional variations of methylmercury pollution in Minamata area using preserved umbilical cord methylmercury, 3) decline in male sex ratio observed in Minamata area, 4) characteristics of hand tremor and postural sway in fetal-type Minamata disease patients, 5) methylmercury transfer from mothers to infants during gestation and lactation (the role of placenta), 6) extrapolation studies using rat models on the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure on the human brain, and 7) risks and benefits of fish consumption. The devastating effects of mercury poisoning that occurred Minamata Japan It was in May 1956, that M. d. was first officially "discovered" in Minamata City, south-west reg … 2016 May 3;71(3):170-7. doi: 10.1080/19338244.2015.1080153. Epub 2009 Oct 29. However, they showed difficulties in head control, sitting, and walking, and showed disturbances in mental development, these symptoms that are similar to those of cerebral palsy, during the growth periods after birth. In i966 the factory installed a water circulation system which removed the mercury pollution. The factory eventually stopped the process in 1968 and in the same year the Japanese government announced its opinion that the disease was due to consumption of methyl mercury in contaminated fish and seafood. 2016;41(6):757-763. doi: 10.2131/jts.41.757. The impaired development of fetal-type Minamata disease patients was one of the most tragic and characteristic feature of Minamata disease. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Therefore, sea creatures were greatly affected by the substance, and as a result, Minamata disease is caused by the intake of the defiled seafood. Mineshi SAKAMOTO, Takaaki ITAI, Katsuyuki MURATA, Effects of Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure: From Minamata Disease to Environmental Health Studies, Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene)Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene), … Stress Health doi: 10.1002/smi.1310. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. The company that owned the factory, the Chisso Minamata Chemical Company, was aware of his work and by 1959 knew that it was likely that Minamata disease was caused by the effluent from their factory. Neurological and neurocognitive functions from intrauterine methylmercury exposure. It was caused by the release of methyl mercury in the industrial waste water from the Chisso Corporation’s chemical factory, which continued from 1932 to 1968. Into this bay flows the effluent from a large fertilizer factory. Here the mercury was converted by micro-organisms into organic mercury, which is quite different from inorganic mercury as it is not very soluble in water but very soluble in fat. During the early stages of the Minamata Disease crisis in Minamata, patients, who were diagnosed with Minamata Disease, seemed to be typical and sever cases of the Hunter- Russell syndrome, including sensory disturbance, concentric constriction of the visual field, ataxia, speech impairment and impaired hearing*12*13*14. Epub 2019 Jun 19. (2010) reviewed the scientific discoveries of health risks resulting from methylmercury exposure, including the history of the Minamata disease incident. The methylmercury accumulated in fish and was consumed by people eating the fish. In the city there was a factory that manufactured the chemicals vinyl chloride (used to make the plastic PVC; see pp. Fish can concentrate methyl mercury to the extent of 10,000 to 100,000 times that in the surrounding water. 2018;73(3):258-264. doi: 10.1265/jjh.73.258. Severely affected children born with congenital Minamata disease are mental retarded and have disturbed coordination, deformities of the limbs, poor reflexes, poor nutrition and growth, and, in some cases, show other effects. However, the damage may be minimized if … Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Dr Hosokawa, director of the Minamata City hospital was conducting his own experiments based on the theory from the university. NLM Minamata Health Centre in Japan on a myste-rious series of four cases of the same, unknown neurological disease (Social Scientific Study Group on Minamata Disease 1999). I'd like to talk about the tardive effects of methylmercury poisoning around Minamata. 14. Furthermore, like other industrial pollution disasters, most of the effects are concentrated in lower socio-economic groups such as labourers from primary industries - in this case fishermen and their families. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error, J-STAGE, Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator, Electronic. A number of villages are located on or near a neighboring bay. He fed cats waste effluent from the factory that was producing acetaldehyde and was able to produce similar symptoms in them, and he detected other changes by pathological examination at autopsy. Inorganic mercury, although poisonous, might have been expected to disperse in the water, but it was mixed with other effluent and this sludge settled at the bottom of the bay. Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Minamata disease, or methylmercury poisoning, was first discovered in 1956 around Minamata Bay, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Over two thousand people died, and thousands more experienced crippling injuries. Minamata disease, sometimes referred to as Chisso-Minamata disease, is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning. HHS What has methylmercury in umbilical cords told us? The Tardive Health Effects Caused by Methylmercury Poisoning around Minamata Shigeru Takaoka Kyoritsu Neurology and Rehabilitation Clinic 1. NIH First, local cats that ate the fish began to stagger about and die. - Minamata disease. Minamata disease is typical of modern industrial pollution in so far as it manifests a wide geographic spread of impacts and casualties. A similar epidemic occurred in 1965 along the Agano River, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Effect of Minamata disease status and the perception of unfairness on ill health and inequalities in health amongst residents of Shiranui Sea communities. Then, we introduce the studies that were conducted mainly by Sakamoto et al.  |  Typical patients with fetal-type Minamata disease (i.e., serious poisoning caused by in utero exposure to methylmercury) were born during the period of severe methylmercury pollution in 1955-1959, although they showed no abnormality during gestation nor at delivery. A constant diet of contaminated food led to increasing amounts of methyl mercury accumulating in the bodies of the shellfish and small fish. Minamata disease (M. d.) is methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning that occurred in humans who ingested fish and shellfish contaminated by MeHg discharged in waste water from a chemical plant (Chisso Co. Ltd.). Continue reading here: The teratogenic effects of methyl mercury, The All Natural Varicose and Spider Vein Solution, ELAY Emollient Intensive Skin Moisturizer, The teratogenic effects of methyl mercury, The attempted murder of Benvenuto Cellini, How DDT works and why it is toxic to insects but not mammals, Symptoms and detection of strychnine poisoning, Accumulation of chemicals in the food chain bioaccumulation and biomagnification, How paint stripper can cause carbon monoxide poisoning, Scientists Reverse Memory Loss in Alzheimers. Yorifuji T, Kado Y, Diez MH, Kishikawa T, Sanada S. Arch Environ Occup Health. 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